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Hungarian Natural History Museum, Giants of Patagonia - Dinosaurs of Argentina - بودابست, هنغاريا

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إحداثيات GPS: خط العرض 47°28'56"، خط الطول 19°5'8" (N47 28.93 - E19 5.13) خريطة

معلومات ، حقائق مثيرة للاهتمام، قصص قصيرة

The Carnotaurus sastrei, a great carnivorous dinosaur - بودابست, هنغاريا The Carnotaurus sastrei, a great carnivorous dinosaur

The bipedal (walking on the two rear legs) theropod Carnotaurus is special but not only because of its appearance. This was a large carnivorous dinosaur with extremely small forelimbs, as well as unique horn-like structures over its eyes. Interestingly almost a complete skeleton was excavated, and to top it all in a natural position (it was laid in a so-called hematite mineral inclusion). The most unique discovery was that beside the bones also skin imprints were remained from this 8-meter-long animal that was weighing 1200 kilograms and lived about 80 million years ago! This kind of paleontological find is very-very rare, this valuable fossil type can answer a lot of things, that the bones alone cannot. For example it can be recognized that the skin of the Carnotaurus was covered by evenly spaced bumps and it looked similar to the skin of the present pachyderms (thick-skinned mammals).

Amargasaurus cazaui, a member of the sauropod dinosaurs, although it is smaller than its relatives, it is even more interesting - بودابست, هنغاريا Amargasaurus cazaui, a member of the sauropod dinosaurs, although it is smaller than its relatives, it is even more interesting

The herbivorous (plant eating) Amargasaurus dinosaur was explored in Argentina, it was named after the Amarga Stream ("Arroyo La Amarga") which is close to the exploration site. All of our knowledge is coming from this as of today only one explored fossil of this species, however this is in quite good conditions. The exhibited skeleton in the temporary exhibition of the Hungarian Natural History Museum ("Magyar Természettudományi Múzeum") is of course just a replica.

The front leg of the Megaraptor namunhuaiquit with giant claws - بودابست, هنغاريا The front leg of the Megaraptor namunhuaiquit with giant claws

The science is not set in stone, even it sounds stange when talking about prehistoric fossils. Here is a great example for this case. The paleontologists could be very surprised when not so long ago it was revealed that the hind leg of a big bipedal predatory dinosaur called Megaraptor namunhuaiquit is actually its foreleg. This dinosaur was known based on only a single fossil for long time, which was a giant, at least 30-centimeter-long razor-sharp sickle-shaped claw. As its scientific name shows this animal was first classified as a member of the raptor family, which are usually small or medium sized fast theropoda dinosaurs, walking on two legs, and each hindfoot has a big sickle-shaped claw.

However, the tables were turned when a complete forelimb of a Megaraptor was found, with the already known giant claw on its first finger. This has made it clear that it couldn't be a raptor but something else. Based on further new discoveries the relationship of the Megaraptor is slowly taking shape, for example the allosauroid Australovenator from the Cretaceous Period could be probably one of its relative.

It is sure that it was big, but the exact appearance can be only assumed and still questionable. After 2007 the "Giants of Patagonia - Dinosaurs of Argentina" exhibition came back to the Hungarian Natural History Museum ("Magyar Természettudományi Múzeum") in 2013 again, and then the whole imaginary complete skeleton of the Megaraptor already could be seen. It was created based on the explored foreleg and the anatomy of the animal's relatives.

So what's the lesson? The science is flexible, newer knowledges, proven findings or rational arguments can even completely upset the previous theories. Among other things this enlightened approach distinguishes it from for example the religions and other dogmas, where the smallest spark of the divergent thinking could lead event to a war. Most of the times the religions say they know the truth, but the science modestly satisfied the fact that it just tries to find it.

In this certain case in the scientific knowledge the hind leg of an animal "became" foreleg in few years, but of course this change took place in a peaceful way even in the scientific community, because why wouldn't they believe their own eyes.

Skull of the Amargasaurus cazaui plant-eating (herbivorous) sauropod dinosaur - بودابست, هنغاريا Skull of the Amargasaurus cazaui plant-eating (herbivorous) sauropod dinosaur

The plant eating sauropod dinosaur group (Sauropoda) was consisted of mostly giant animals, the Amargasaurus which was lived about 130 million years ago was relatively small compared to them. Its strange teeth could be even frightful, but these are just very practical: these were evolved to collect the plant food. The sauropods used their teeth like a comb, they "ripped off" all the leaves from a branch with one movement then swallowed them without chewing. The food procession exclusively depended on their very long and special digestive tract.

A larger animal has longer digestive system, so the body can process the food for longer time, and due to the same reason a large animal can eat even lower quality food. The primary target was the fast eating, therefore the more rapid growth. It is no wonder, because the big size was the major weapon of this prehistoric reptile group agains the predators. Probably that's why the bone spikes on the neck of the Amargasaurus were evolved, to somewhat compensate the relatively smaller size of this sauropod dinosaur.

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بودابست, هنغاريا - معرض صور أكثر:

Angyalföld, Lehel Street (46 الصور) Angyalföld, miscellaneous pictures (52 الصور) Downtown or Inner City (Belváros district) (55 الصور) Downtown (Belváros district), riverbanks of Danube (75 الصور) Downtown (Belváros district), Ferenciek tere (square) (63 الصور) Downtown (Belváros district), Váci Street (69 الصور) Downtown (Belváros district), Inner City Parish Church (59 الصور) The Buda Hills in winter (26 الصور) Budapest Park, Pet Shop Boys concert (80 الصور) Campona Tropicarium Zoo and Oceanarium (32 الصور) Elizabeth Bridge ("Erzsébet híd") (45 الصور) The outer Danube bridges of Budapest (46 الصور) Margaret Bridge ("Margit híd") (48 الصور) Liberty Bridge (aka Freedom Bridge, "Szabadság híd") (36 الصور) Széchenyi Chain Bridge ("Széchenyi Lánchíd") (39 الصور) Great Danube Flood of 2006, photos until the peaking (189 الصور) Great Danube Flood of 2006, photos after the peaking (77 الصور) Riverbank of Danube, Buda side (76 الصور) Riverbank of Danube, Pest side (92 الصور) The icy Danube River (27 الصور) Banks of the Danube, Red Bull Air Race Budapest (52 الصور) Erzsébetváros, New York Palace and Café (44 الصور) Erzsébetváros, Rózsák tere (square) (52 الصور) Erzsébetváros, miscellaneous pictures (62 الصور) Erzsébetváros, Synagogues (47 الصور) Cozy restaurants and cafés (100 الصور) Ferencváros, Riverbanks of Danube (30 الصور) Ferencváros, Danube bank with the "Bálna" (44 الصور) Ferencváros, Corvinus University of Budapest (34 الصور) Ferencváros, Museum of the Applied Arts (28 الصور) Ferencváros, Central Market Hall or Great Market Hall (Nagycsarnok) (41 الصور) Ferencváros, Ráday Street (41 الصور) Ferencváros, miscellaneous pictures (57 الصور) Budapest Ferenc Liszt International Airport (former Ferihegy Airport) (111 الصور) Gellért Bath spa and thermal bath (75 الصور) Gellért Hill and surroundings (127 الصور) Heroes' Square ("Hősök tere") (103 الصور) Heroes' Square ("Hősök tere"), concert of the Omega and the Scorpions bands (80 الصور) Buda Hills: János Hill, Elisabeth Lookout Tower (79 الصور) Józsefváros, Keleti Railway Station (115 الصور) Józsefváros, Palotanegyed ("Palace District") (34 الصور) Józsefváros, Urania National Film Theatre (32 الصور) Józsefváros, vegyes képek (38 الصور) Aquaworld water park, the indoor adventure pools in the evening (17 الصور) Small Boulevard ("Kiskörút") (78 الصور) Kopaszi Dike, Öböl Park ("Bay Park") (61 الصور) Lipótváros, Deák Square and surroundings (60 الصور) Lipótváros, riverbank of Danube (50 الصور) Lipótváros, the Kossuth Square and the Hungarian Parliament Building at night (57 الصور) Hungarian Parliament Building ("Országház") and surroundings (85 الصور) Szabadság Square and surroundings (134 الصور) Gresham Palace (33 الصور) St. Stephen's Basilica ("Szent István-bazilika") (64 الصور) Christmas fair at the St. Stephen's Basilica (27 الصور) Lipótváros, miscellaneous photos (58 الصور) Lipótváros, Vörösmarty Square and surroundings (69 الصور) Margaret Island ("Margit-sziget"), southern part (69 الصور) Margaret Island ("Margit-sziget"), northern part (72 الصور) Mátyásföld, Erzsébet-liget ("Elisabeth Park") (89 الصور) Mátyásföld, Children's Day picnic in the Erzsébet-liget ("Elizabeth Park") (105 الصور) Cinkota Forest (31 الصور) Grand Boulevard ("Nagykörút") (113 الصور) Nagytétény, Száraz-Rudnyánszky Castle and Museum (67 الصور) Népsziget ("People's Island") (31 الصور) Óbuda and its surroundings (85 الصور) Óbuda, Banks of River Danube, Római Beach (Római-part) (105 الصور) Örs vezér tere (square) (44 الصور) Rákóczi Avenue (51 الصور) Rákospalota (10 الصور) Terézváros, Andrássy Avenue, "the aristocrat of the roads" (103 الصور) Terézváros, Andrássy Avenue, Hungarian State Opera House (44 الصور) Terézváros, Liszt Ferenc Square and surroundings (51 الصور) Terézváros, Nyugati Square (60 الصور) Terézváros, miscellaneous pictures (47 الصور) Hungarian Natural History Museum (40 الصور) Újpest, harbor on the Danube bank (63 الصور) Újpest, district center (97 الصور) Újpest, miscellaneous photos (54 الصور) Buda Castle quarter, Royal Palace (140 الصور) Buda Castle quarter, Fisherman's Bastion and Matthias Church (112 الصور) Buda Castle quarter, miscellaneous photos (197 الصور) City Park ("Városliget"), Budapest Zoo: African Savannah Zone (60 الصور) City Park ("Városliget"), Budapest Zoo: Aquarium (60 الصور) City Park ("Városliget"), Budapest Zoo: Australia House (53 الصور) City Park ("Városliget"), Budapest Zoo: architecture, listed buildings (109 الصور) City Park ("Városliget"), Budapest Zoo: Primates (55 الصور) City Park ("Városliget"), Budapest Zoo: the kids' favorites (42 الصور) City Park ("Városliget"), Budapest Zoo: Little Rock (79 الصور) City Park ("Városliget"), Budapest Zoo: Great Rock, the "Magical Hill" (98 الصور) City Park ("Városliget"), Budapest Zoo: Great Lake and the Japanese Garden (76 الصور) City Park ("Városliget"), Budapest Zoo: America Tropicana (Palm-house) (77 الصور) City Park ("Városliget"), Budapest Zoo: (121 الصور) City Park ("Városliget"), Állatkerti körút ("Zoo Boulevard") (49 الصور) City Park ("Városliget"), the old theme park (55 الصور) City Park ("Városliget"), Széchenyi Bath thermal bath and spa (70 الصور) City Park ("Városliget"), City Park Lake (132 الصور) City Park ("Városliget"), Vajdahunyad Castle (104 الصور) City Park ("Városliget"), Olof Palme House (27 الصور) City Park ("Városliget"), miscellaneous photos (170 الصور) Zugló, Herminamező (76 الصور) Zugló, Istvánmező (111 الصور) Zugló, Istvánmező, Stefánia Palace and Honvéd Cultural Center (100 الصور) Erzsébetváros, University of Veterinary Medicine ("Állatorvostudományi Egyetem") (21 الصور) Terézváros, the Andrássy Avenue in early spring (125 الصور) Lipótváros, the reconstructed Kossuth Square (75 الصور) Óbuda, Aquincum, Graphisoft Park (54 الصور) "The Great Race 2015" air show in the downtown over the Danube River (64 الصور) Óbuda, Aquincum, Danube bank (48 الصور) The Buda Hills in autumn (125 الصور) Buda Castle Bazaar, Gardens and Pavilion ("Várkert-bazár" or "Várbazár") (149 الصور) Danube bank of Buda, Batthyány Square (61 الصور) Danube bank of Buda, Clark Ádám Square (49 الصور) Budapest-Déli Railway Terminal (31 الصور) Buda, Széll Kálmán Square (former Moszkva Square) (81 الصور) Újpest, Farkas Forest (95 الصور) Labyrinth of Buda Castle (15 الصور) Zugló, Istvánmező, Stefánia Avenue (149 الصور) Erzsébetváros, "Party district" ("Bulinegyed") by night (98 الصور) Mátyásföld, Bike path along Szilas Brook (Szilas-patak) (58 الصور) Buda Castle Quarter by night (42 الصور) Downtown, Sightseeing boat trip on the Danube by night (30 الصور)  
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